GDPR demystified for sole traders and small businesses: Part 1

Word Count: 2,456    Reading Time: 12 minutes

Welcome to a series of articles in which we attempt to explain in lay terms the GDPR and why it’s applicable to most, if not all of us. It’s a bit dull and soporific a subject, but hey if you’re reading it, then you probably need to know what it’s about….and might even make it to the end of the article!

What is GDPR and does it apply to you?

The General Data Protection Regulation came into effect on May 25th 2018 and supersedes the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC and the UK Data Protection Act 1998. It applies to all persons and businesses that collect and process personal data within the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA).

Furthermore, it applies to data collectors and processors located outside the EU and EEA who do, or may handle personal data of EU citizens and data controllers. Therefore you could say that GDPR applies worldwide in the case of internet services and international trade.

The primary objectives of GDPR are to give control back to individuals of their personal data and to establish unified regulations within the EU for international trade, which in turn may lead to greater transparency in relation to personal data worldwide.

It is important to realise that GDPR does not only apply to data collected from websites, but also social media, email and other business processes such as paperwork, correspondence and accounts. It applies to all forms of personal data irrespective of what means of collection were used. While GDPR is obviously highly relevant to online data collection, its core principle is the protection of personal data in any format.

Many have expressed discontent with the regulations regarding them as an unnecessary layer of bureaucratic control over individual rights and trade. I understand this view but prefer the perspective that if all data collectors and processors worldwide adopted the key principles of GDPR, we would all benefit. This would lead more in the direction of a greater degree of data privacy we have not been afforded to date.

Word Count: 2,456    Reading Time: 12 minutes


 

Welcome to a series of articles in which we attempt to explain in lay terms the GDPR and why it’s applicable to most, if not all of us. It’s a bit dull and soporific a subject, but hey if you’re reading it, then you probably need to know what it’s about….and might even make it to the end of the article!

What is GDPR and does it apply to you?

The General Data Protection Regulation came into effect on May 25th 2018 and supersedes the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC and the UK Data Protection Act 1998. It applies to all persons and businesses that collect and process personal data within the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA).

Furthermore, it applies to data collectors and processors located outside the EU and EEA who do, or may handle personal data of EU citizens and data controllers. Therefore you could say that GDPR applies worldwide in the case of internet services and international trade.

The primary objectives of GDPR are to give control back to individuals of their personal data and to establish unified regulations within the EU for international trade, which in turn may lead to greater transparency in relation to personal data worldwide.

It is important to realise that GDPR does not only apply to data collected from websites, but also social media, email and other business processes such as paperwork, correspondence and accounts. It applies to all forms of personal data irrespective of what means of collection were used. While GDPR is obviously highly relevant to online data collection, its core principle is the protection of personal data in any format.

Many have expressed discontent with the regulations regarding them as an unnecessary layer of bureaucratic control over individual rights and trade. I understand this view but prefer the perspective that if all data collectors and processors worldwide adopted the key principles of GDPR, we would all benefit. This would lead more in the direction of a greater degree of data privacy we have not been afforded to date.

What are the key principles of GDPR?

The most important principle is that individuals have complete control over their personal data and that their data is collected only with their explicit consent, rather than implied consent or without any consent. In addition, when collecting personal data it is essential to inform the individual who is collecting the data and for what purpose it is being used.

Simply put, you need an individual’s explicit consent to take any of their personal data and you must declare clearly who it is taking their data and for what purpose. This is at any point or step where you are requesting data, depending on your data processes and flow, you may need to gain explicit consent from the same individual more than once.

Explicit consent requires what the GDPR describes as a clear opt-in, not just an opt-out (especially as a default setting) or implied consent. If you are using pre-checked tick boxes or relying on someone pressing a send button without clearly explaining that data is being collected, for what purpose and by whom, then this is implied consent.

An opt-in is not the same as an opt-out, and is defined by GDPR as a mechanism provided for the individual to directly consent at each point of personal data collection, that is not pre-filled by default, and records their explicit opt-in consent for the data collection. Should it be requested by an individual or regulator, you must be able to demonstrate clearly the recording of the individual’s explicit consent to proceed with the data collection, at the time of collection.

Minimising personal data collection, storage and processing is another strong principle in GDPR. It requires us to evaluate how much personal data we do collect, what data is really necessary and how long data is required to provide our services and functionality to the individual. It is most important to know who we are sharing personal data with and if this is really necessary to provide services.

The aim should be to collect as little personal data as possible, only that which is essential to provide services, and collect no data at all, if possible. If you only need a first name or an email address to provide services, then take only that.

Article 25 of GDPR pertains to “data protection by design and by default”. Under GDPR organisations and businesses are strongly encouraged to design into their processes data privacy measures and safeguards from the very beginning. This is data protection by design.

Personal data should be processed with the highest level of privacy protection measures, by default. This means that only the minimum amount of data necessary should be collected and processed, with a short storage period and with limited accessibility. So that by default, personal data isn’t accessible to unauthorised data processors or any other third parties, without explicit consent of the individual. This is data protection by default.

What is Personal Data exactly?

As GDPR is all about protecting personal data, its important to understand what it is and that it includes data collected by automated and non-automated means. Unfortunately there is no definitive list of what is defined as personal data and what is not.

In reality, what constitutes personal data is subject to interpretation of the GDPR definition and how it applies in the context of the data collection, storage and processing.

Article 4(1) of GDPR defines “personal data” with clarification as follows:

‘Personal data’ means any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (‘data subject’); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.

Adding complexity to defining what is personal data, it is important to understand that each byte of data may or may not be an identifier in itself, but may become so when combined with other bytes of data relevant to the individual. Context and setting may affect the definition of any/and/or all bytes of personal data, not least when data is involved in behavioural analysis, profiling and data breach incidents.

The clever folks over at BoxCryptor (a Cloud services company) put together a good list of identifiers from everyday life to demonstrate the potential complexity and accuracy that can be achieved in identifying an individual. Please note that this list is not exhaustive and does not include digital identifiers such as IP addresses and cookie identifiers;

  • Biographical information including date of birth, marital status, social security numbers, criminal record, phone numbers, email addresses, residential address and bank information.
  • Looks, appearance and behaviour, including hair and eye colour, height, weight and defining characteristics.
  • Workplace data and information about education, including salary, tax information and student numbers.
  • Private and subjective data, including photos, religion and political opinions.
  • Health, sickness and genetics, including medical history, genetic data and information about sick leave and fitness data.

What are the Rights of Individuals under GDPR?

Under GDPR individuals are granted certain rights that may greatly affect your business and online processes, as listed below with brief explanations;

  • The right to be informed: Individuals have the right to be informed about the collection and use of their personal data. Inform individuals of your purposes for processing their personal data, retention periods for that data, and who you share the data with. This is ‘privacy information’ and is the key transparency requirement of the GDPR.
  • The right of access: Individuals have the right to access their personal data and must be able to do so verbally or in writing, on or off-line. Requests to access personal data must be actioned within one month maximum, it is however advisable to action in the shortest time possible.
  • The right to rectification: The individual’s right to have inaccurate or incomplete personal data corrected and made complete. This right is linked to the data controller’s obligations under the accuracy principle of the GDPR (Article (5)(1)(d)). An individual must be able to request rectification verbally or in writing, on or off-line and must be actioned within one month maximum.
  • The right to erasure: The individual’s right to have personal data erased, commonly known as the right to be forgotten. An individual must be able to request erasure verbally or in writing, on or off-line and must be actioned within one month maximum. This right applies in certain circumstances only and is therefore not absolute.
  • The right to restrict processing: The individual’s right to request the restriction or suppression of their personal data. If processing is restricted you have the right to store it, but not use the data. An individual must be able to request restriction or suppression verbally or in writing, on or off-line and must be actioned within one month maximum. This right links to the right to rectification (Article 16) and the right to object (Article 21).
  • The right to data portability: The individual’s right to obtain and reuse their personal data for their purposes across different services and platforms. The individual must be able to move, copy or transfer personal data from one IT environment to another in a secure manner, without affecting data usability. This right only applies to information an individual has provided to a data controller. This right must be actioned within one month maximum, however this is extendable according to the nature and complexity of the data requested. In addition, such requests may be rejected under certain circumstances. Additional reading on this right is thus highly recommended.
  • The right to object: The individual’s right to object to the processing of their personal data in certain circumstances, and including the absolute right to stop their personal data being processed for direct marketing, on or off-line. Individuals must be informed of their right to object. An individual must be able to make an objection verbally or in writing, on or off-line and must be actioned within one month maximum. There are circumstances where data processing may continue despite an objection, if it can be demonstrated there is a compelling and legally justifiable reason for doing so.
  • Rights in relation to automated decision making and profiling: As described by Article 22 of GDPR, provisions for rights in the cases of:
    • Automated individual decision-making (making a decision solely by automated means without any human involvement); and
    • Profiling (automated processing of personal data to evaluate certain things about an individual). Profiling can be part of an automated decision-making process.
  • The GDPR applies to all automated individual decision-making and profiling processes and procedures. Solely automated decision-making that has legal or similarly significant effects on individuals has additional rules to protect individuals rights. Such decision making processes can only be conducted where the decision is:
    • Necessary for the entry into or performance of a contract; or
    • Authorised by Union or Member state law applicable to the controller; or
    • Based on the individual’s explicit consent.
  • It is essential to determine if any data processing falls under Article 22 and if so, ensure that:
    • Individuals are given information about the processing;
    • Provide simple mechanisms for individuals to request human intervention in the data processing, challenge or appeal a decision;
    • Conduct regular assessments to ensure systems described above are working as designed.

Are you a Data Controller or Processor?

 

As this article is for sole traders and SMEs only, in all likelihood you are a data controller, in that in the course of your business and online activities you are collecting, at the very least, individuals’ names and email addresses. The person or organisation collecting such data is a data controller, as defined in Article 4 of the GDPR;

‘Controller’ means the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law.

In most cases a sole trader or SME will be collecting data, the processing of such data is most likely handled by a third party service provider such as Google or Mailchimp for example. The GDPR introduces, for the first time, direct obligations for data processors to data subjects or individuals.

This is why big players like Google, Paypal and Mailchimp (examples only) have been working to achieve GDPR compliance. They are now subject to regulatory penalties and civil claims by individuals pertaining to data processing and protection. Article 4 describes data processors;

‘Processor’ means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller.

What is a Data Protection Officer and do I need one?

If you are a sole trader or SME, depending on the type of business activities, in all likelihood you do not need to appoint a Data Protection Officer (DPO). Most likely you need to designate a named data controller, possibly yourself. There are circumstances under which data processors and controllers must appoint a DPO, as described by Article 37(1):

(a) the processing is carried out by a public authority or body, except for courts acting in their judicial capacity;

(b) the core activities of the controller or the processor consist of processing operations which, by virtue of their nature, their scope and/or their purposes, require regular and systematic monitoring of data subjects on a large scale; or

(c) the core activities of the controller or the processor consist of processing on a large scale of special categories of data pursuant to Article 9 and personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences referred to in Article 10.

As most people reading this article are unlikely to need to appoint a DPO we won’t go down that rabbit hole!

Okay, so you made it this far, well done…that concludes Part 1.

In Part 2 we will delve deeper into the actual things you need to do as a sole trader and SME to your website(s) and other data collection mechanisms such as social media, email and mailing lists. We will also discuss some of the technical difficulties in complying with the GDPR for small operators.

Creating Interpretive Experience In A Conservation Area

Word Count: 2,085    Reading Time: 11 minutes

Creating Interpretive Experiences in Ecotourism

 

In this post we look at How To Create An Interpretive Experience associated with an ecotourism experience within a Special Area of Conservation in Ireland.

Ecotourism, as defined by the Global Sustainable Tourism Council, typically incorporates a feature of conservation that may be ecological, cultural, historical, archaeological and/or spiritual. The experience should seek to simultaneously immerse visitors in this feature and it’s characteristics whilst preserving it, thus creating a ‘sustainable experience‘.

Careful consideration need be taken to ensure the integrity of the site and features are not impacted by proposed use, nor the access to the features by local peoples affected. In essence, the conservation features should not be altered by the proposed activities, yet means for providing opportunities to immerse within the experience need to bring visitors into close contact with it for it to have any ‘interpretive value‘.

Clearly then, ensuring the sustainability of the conservation features requires considerable research, consultation and planning. It is essential that this process include and be informed by the Interpretive Theme of the experience.

 

Interpretive Themes vs Topics

 

An experience with an essence of conservation at it’s core typically can be found to have a main theme or indeed multiple themes that give meaning to, and reasons for the attitude of preservation of the feature(s).

Themes go far beyond simple topics, and it has been shown by research and experience that learning and understanding are enhanced by the thematic approach (Ham, 1992), as opposed to the instructive, topic based approach.

An example of a topic may be: Nature and Health.

An example of a theme may be: After experiencing nature first hand, interacting with plants and animals personally, people begin to sense the importance of being in nature for their mental, emotional and physical wellbeing.

Thus to create an Interpretive experience the core themes of it must be identified and consensus reached on how best to communicate this to the visitor, while preserving the resource(s).

The concept of thematic interpretation was first proposed by Freeman Tilden in Interpreting Our Heritage (1957) and later by Dr. Grant W. Sharpe in his work, Interpreting the Environment (1976). Thematic Interpretation was later popularised by Dr. Sam H. Ham in Environmental Interpretation (1992).

The common perspective in these works is that thematic interpretation is a process that provokes the visitor or audience to think for themselves, thus developing a subjective understanding of the experience, as opposed to being instructed to accept a particular view point or set of ‘facts’.

In later years thematic interpretation has been more often referred to as ‘thematic communication‘ and adopted in programs aimed at altering environmental behaviours, occupational health and safety, risk assessment and communication and sustainable development.

Word Count: 2,085    Reading Time: 11 minutes

 


 

 

Creating Interpretive Experiences in Ecotourism

 

In this post we look at How To Create An Interpretive Experience associated with an ecotourism experience within a Special Area of Conservation in Ireland.

Ecotourism, as defined by the Global Sustainable Tourism Council, typically incorporates a feature of conservation that may be ecological, cultural, historical, archaeological and/or spiritual. The experience should seek to simultaneously immerse visitors in this feature and it’s characteristics whilst preserving it, thus creating a ‘sustainable experience‘.

Careful consideration need be taken to ensure the integrity of the site and features are not impacted by proposed use, nor the access to the features by local peoples affected. In essence, the conservation features should not be altered by the proposed activities, yet means for providing opportunities to immerse within the experience need to bring visitors into close contact with it for it to have any ‘interpretive value‘.

Clearly then, ensuring the sustainability of the conservation features requires considerable research, consultation and planning. It is essential that this process include and be informed by the Interpretive Theme of the experience.

 

Interpretive Themes vs Topics

 

An experience with an essence of conservation at it’s core typically can be found to have a main theme or indeed multiple themes that give meaning to, and reasons for the attitude of preservation of the feature(s).

Themes go far beyond simple topics, and it has been shown by research and experience that learning and understanding are enhanced by the thematic approach (Ham, 1992), as opposed to the instructive, topic based approach.

An example of a topic may be: Nature and Health.

An example of a theme may be: After experiencing nature first hand, interacting with plants and animals personally, people begin to sense the importance of being in nature for their mental, emotional and physical wellbeing.

Thus to create an Interpretive experience the core themes of it must be identified and consensus reached on how best to communicate this to the visitor, while preserving the resource(s).

The concept of thematic interpretation was first proposed by Freeman Tilden in Interpreting Our Heritage (1957) and later by Dr. Grant W. Sharpe in his work, Interpreting the Environment (1976). Thematic Interpretation was later popularised by Dr. Sam H. Ham in Environmental Interpretation (1992).

The common perspective in these works is that thematic interpretation is a process that provokes the visitor or audience to think for themselves, thus developing a subjective understanding of the experience, as opposed to being instructed to accept a particular view point or set of ‘facts’.

In later years thematic interpretation has been more often referred to as ‘thematic communication‘ and adopted in programs aimed at altering environmental behaviours, occupational health and safety, risk assessment and communication and sustainable development.

How To Engage Visitors By Interpretation?

 

As discussed interpretation is not direct dissemination of facts and viewpoints, but a process of communication that assists visitors to understand the story or theme within the landscape, culture or special site they are visiting. Think immersion in the experience as opposed to just talking about it.

The theme or story may be site and regionally specific, but may have further reaching implications to the region of origin of the visitor, and to the global community too! It’s easy to see then how an engaging interpretive experience may create considerable impact within the awareness of the visitor, the potential flow-on effects of which are incalculable.

When such an approach is used to share conservation and preservation themes, and other similar themes, the resulting impact is more personally engaging and thus more likely to remain within the awareness of the individual and groups.

As Sir David Attenborough puts it;

No one will protect what they don’t care about, and no-one cares about what they’ve never experienced.

 

Typical ways visitors can be engaged in thematic interpretation is by way of walks, talks, tours, media, signage and art, all containing the messages of the theme(s).

Furthermore, interactive experiences, particularly first hand of nature and animals, are very powerful experiences that create a strong personal link with the theme. In general, the more informal and fun the experience, the greater the impact of the theme.

Developing An Interpretive Experience

 

Paul King in Drummin Wood scouting an Interpretive Trail
Paul King in Drummin Wood scouting an Interpretive Trail

Some steps to take…

 

In this particular case we are talking about an Interpretive Trail we gained approval for from the National Parks and Wildlife Service in Ireland. The trail is located within a section of a Special Area of Conservation, Drummin Wood SAC 002181, registered under the EU Habitats Directive. The trail is part of the ecotourism experience we managed, Crann Og Eco Farm, Certified Gold Ecotourism Operator 2015 – 2019.

The approved trail, to be used as part of the ecotourism experience, forest school classes and guided nature therapy walks, is regarded as a blueprint project for ecotourism operators in Ireland. The trail essentially meanders through the conservation area on pre-existing ancient pathways and tracks, taking in numerous points of interest within the oak woodland. The experience is prefaced by, and used to promote the Leave No Trace Codes for Outdoor Conduct.

 

Determining the Themes

 

The starting point for the development of an interpretive experience is arriving at conscensus on the core theme(s) of the experience, and the perceived target audience of the interpretation. In this case the themes arose from years of experience engaging visitors in different activities on different scales.

Enhanced knowledge and training helped for the themes to become clear;

Re-connecting with nature and becoming aware of nature’s cycles and our inter-dependency with nature.

Disconnecting or ‘unplugging’ from information technology to slow down into the moment in nature to release stress, relax, and for benefits of emotional and physical health.

Finding ways to explore and have fun for children and parents together, naturally.

Conservation of nature and the rarity of bio-diverse habitats in Ireland. Discussions, exploration and tours of special area of conservation.

Ecotourism and it’s potential benefits to nature conservation.

Exploring edges and expanding limits of personal and familial experience and levels of comfort in a natural world setting.

Enhancing mental health through interacting with the natural world, stimulating the senses through multisensory experiences.

Conservation of resources and energy and the endless possibilities of the concepts of reduce, re-use and recycle.

Once the thematic content and aims of the interpretive experience have been determined, the means of communication and interaction, that is the content and structure, must be designed.

Along with this, the techniques for facilitating the experience that best suit the themes, engaging facilitation for the target audience, and the overlying aims project, should be determined before moving into the application phase.

 

Attaining Regulatory Approval

 

In any interpretive experience there are likely to be organisations from which regulatory approval is necessary to conduct the proposed activity. Depending on the activity, its situation, the region and its laws and customs, this process may be lengthy and complex.

More than likely written submissions will be required to substantiate the claims of the proponents of the experience in terms of value of the interpretation to the site, visitors, the local community, the region and the overriding theme, of ecotourism and nature conservation in this particular case.

Written submissions should include, as a rule of thumb, details of potential impacts and how they will be managed, benefits to the community of the interpretive experience, levels of engagement and use of the site and technical monitoring of potential impacts.

Periodic reporting is most likely to be a condition to approval of any such activity and thus it is a good idea to include commitment to such reporting in the original submission or application.

It is a strong common sensical approach to propose higher than minimum standard levels of monitoring, management and reporting when seeking regulatory approval, as this demonstrates a very strong commitment to conservation of the resource.

It also sets a ‘tone’ of a high standard which enhances a stronger ethos within those facilitating the interpretation, which in turn reinforces the overlying aims of the theme(s).

 

Stakeholder Liaison

 

To make any submission for regulatory approval, and to conduct a thorough assessment to meet the requirements of ecotourism for example, liaison and possibly negotiation with local and regional stakeholders is essential.

It is impossible to create an ecotourism and indeed and interpretive experience involving sensitive resources without some degree of stakeholder involvement.

Particularly in developing regions, especially where foreign investment is involved in the experience, considerable scope exists for abuse of rights of local peoples and the inequitable consumption of resources as related to tourism activities.

In our view for any ecotourism venture and interpretive experience to be truly sustainable they must go beyond standards that talk more to ‘sustainable tourism development’ than they do to total sustainability. For example we suggest;

 

  • Complete conservation of the natural, cultural, historical, archaeological and ethnographic resources. Anything less than complete preservation is not sustainable and is simply ‘lip service’.
  • Equitable business models that protect and enhance the lives of the regional and local stakeholders at all levels and without exception.
  • Business and operational models of which the main aim is complete sustainability of the natural interpretive resources in perpetuity, as opposed to ‘sustainable tourism business development’. This must be inclusive of continued assessment demonstrating that the activity should be discontinued where applicable.
  • Restrictions on foreign ownership of any region’s ‘interpretive assets’ combined with capping of foreign investment share in operational profits.
  • Monetary fund with standard conditions for access by all peoples of all regions for the development of truly sustainable experiences incorporating interpretive resources, such that the need for foreign investment is negated.
  • Complete resource consumption versus waste and pollution neutrality or better, without exception.

 

Trained interpretive experience staff showing animal skull found in the wild.

Identifying Key Experience and Training Needs

 

Once themes are determined it is the essential to determine what experience and potential training will be required by those facilitating the interpretive experience, to ensure the aims of the experience are attained.

Accumulating the identified experience and training can be a long process and require input from many sources and considerable financial resources. In addition, pilot programs are a recommended next phase to assess the efficacy of the training and the interpretive experience, as well as the capabilities of those facilitating the interpretation.

Depending on legislation and insurance requirements, certification of facilitators may be required, usually where the experience involves children or some or more physical risk. This can add to the lead time to start-up of an interpretive experience and require additional financial resources.

 

Trained interpretive experience staff showing animal skull found in the wild.

Communication of The Experience Pre & Post Visit

 

Potential visitors must be able to understand what the interpretive experience offers in terms of connection with nature, education, conservation, recreation and how the experience benefits the environment and local community.

The description and promotion the experience should be accurate, complete and reflect the nature and feel of the experience.

Access to be made to additional information and interpretive resources that compliment and support the theme(s) and overlying aims.

Wherever possible proponents should endeavour to connect with other organisations, venues and networks of similar and complimentary content.

Networking helps to further the aims of all members of that network and avail the potential visitors to create a multi faceted experience in the region.

In time it is likely the interpretive experience will be modified, taking on enhancements or potentially changes required as a result of observation of impacts of the interpretive activities.

Communication of the evolution of the experience may be communicated to previous visitors through websites, email and social media to continue the process of education.

 

 

Development of Interpretive Materials

 

The process of determining the theme(s) of the interpretation will involve the identification of materials and techniques for the facilitation of the experience.

Additional resources are likely required for the creation of a range of different materials that may include multimedia (online & in case of a centre), maps, trails, viewing structures, protective enclosures/exclosures, trail markers, interactive equipment/props and educational material.

Furthermore, depending on the type of experience, relevant infrastructure and ‘setting’ may be required involving additional planning, time, resources and approval.

Determining the interactive materials required feeds back into the Key Experience & Training stage, informing potential additional needs in this area.

 

 

Evaluation & Management

 

The efficacy of the interpretive experience and the effectiveness of impact management associated with the activities must be assessed over time and against frequency of engagement.

Achieving the aims of the interpretation and the quantitative goals of the impact management require monitoring and experience feedback collation and assessment.

Without such information feedback loops it is impossible to determine if an experience is of the proposed value and if it should be continued.

 

Resources

Interpreting Our Heritage, Freeman Tilden, 1957.

Interpreting the Environment, Dr. Grant W. Sharpe, 1976.

Environmental Interpretation, Dr. Sam H. Ham, 1992.

Eco Certification Standards & Measures, What are they?

Word Count: 1,077    Reading Time: 5.5 minutes

Eco Certification Standards & Measures Explained

 

In Ireland ecotourism is overseen and certified by Ecotourism Ireland, formed and headed up by Mary Mulvey.

This organisation audits and certifies a range of sustainable tourism venues and experiences from places like Crann Og Eco Farm to Inishbofin Island.

Ecotourism Ireland is one of 14 companies in the world recognised by The Global Sustainable Tourism Council.

The Council provides the framework and criteria for ecotourism worldwide and has formulated these measures to be adaptable to local conditions with additional supplementary criteria for specific locations and activities.

 

Why Have Standards

 

Eco Certification Standards exist in order to promote a unified approach to managing sustainability and equitability in tourism development and operation worldwide.

In the process, to ensure the conservation of natural and cultural treasures while managing one of the fastest growing sectors in the world.

To create a simple recipe for all tourism development internationally that promotes the ethos of education and raising of awareness, informing policy development for governance, enterprise and other interests, monitoring and assessment and as the baseline for certification.

 

Word Count: 1,077    Reading Time: 5.5 minutes

 


 

 

Eco Certification Standards & Measures Explained

 

In Ireland ecotourism is overseen and certified by Ecotourism Ireland, formed and headed up by Mary Mulvey.

This organisation audits and certifies a range of sustainable tourism venues and experiences from places like Crann Og Eco Farm to Inishbofin Island.

Ecotourism Ireland is one of 14 companies in the world recognised by The Global Sustainable Tourism Council.

The Council provides the framework and criteria for ecotourism worldwide and has formulated these measures to be adaptable to local conditions with additional supplementary criteria for specific locations and activities.

 

 

Why Have Standards

 

Eco Certification Standards exist in order to promote a unified approach to managing sustainability and equitability in tourism development and operation worldwide.

In the process, to ensure the conservation of natural and cultural treasures while managing one of the fastest growing sectors in the world.

To create a simple recipe for all tourism development internationally that promotes the ethos of education and raising of awareness, informing policy development for governance, enterprise and other interests, monitoring and assessment and as the baseline for certification.

 

Eco Tourism Ireland logo.
ISEAL Alliance logo.

What Are the Standards

 

The GSTC developed criteria that consist of four main categories covering all aspects related to sustainable tourism that provide the basic framework for detailed measures;

Demonstrate effective sustainable management;

Maximize social and economic benefits to the local community and minimize negative impacts;

Maximize benefits to cultural heritage and minimize negative impacts;

Maximize benefits to the environment and minimize negative impacts.

 

As you can see these are broad categories, each of them incorporating large areas of study, consultation and assessment

How to make these categories workable and achievable while remaining relevant internationally?

Decades of experience, research and consultation by the Council looked at the range of guidelines and standards implemented around the world by different countries and organisations.

Consultation was conducted on every continent and in multiple languages whilst trying to arrive at a set of formulae that could be easily adapted to differing cultures, environments, laws and customs.

 

…the Criteria was designed to adhere to ISO codes of conduct and the standards-setting code of the ISEAL Alliance, the international body providing guidance for the development and management of sustainability standards for all sectors. (GSTC)

ISEAL Alliance logo.

Detailed Criteria for Certification of Ecotourism

 

The four main categories identified by the GSTC led to the development of eight detailed Certification Criteria Categories:

1. Environmentally Sustainable Practices

2. Natural Area Focus

3. Interpretation and Education

4. Contributing to Conservation

5. Benefiting local communities

6. Visitor Satisfaction

7. Responsible Marketing

8. Cultural respect and awareness

 

Each of these categories comprises a number of measures that countries, sectors and operators must attain in order to achieve certification by this system.

Together they comprise what is defined as the minimum standard in approaching ‘social, environmental, cultural, and economic sustainability.’

 

Certification Measures Summarised

 

A little more information on the measures in each criteria category.

 

Environmentally Sustainable Practices

 

From the adoption of minimal impact codes to regulatory compliance and implementation of Sustainability Management Systems.

The use of renewable energy technologies, non-motorised transport and promotion of environmentally friendly transport.

Staff training and education regarding environmental impacts, and communication to the public of commitment to sustainable practices.

Adoption of an energy and waste management plan, use and promotion of ethical and eco-labelled services and products.

 

Leave No Trace Codes For Outdoor Conduct logo.

Natural Area Focus

 

Work with local stakeholders and ensure that local access to sites of environmental, cultural , spiritual and historic sites are not impeded.

Implementation of the Leave No Trace Codes of Conduct.

That the experience involves personal experience of nature by the visitor while ensuring visitor to guide/staff ratios remain moderate.

That a protected natural, cultural or historical area is included as part of the experience.

 

Interpretation and Education

 

Educational staff are appropriately trained and experienced.

Interpretive experience plans are in place and inform design of the experience/program/product.

Specific interest groups and demographics are catered to and interaction with other visitors and interest groups is incorporated into the experience.

Information is provided to past and future visitors of improvements.

 

Contributing to Conservation

 

Active involvement in a payback schemes involving conservation and membership to conservation groups.

Actively involved in local environmental project(s) and information events.

Provide information on local flora, fauna and nature reserves.

Tree planting programs and creation of natural habitats for endemic species.

 

Benefiting Local Communities

 

Work with the local community and support employment of local guides.

Provide access to work experience and involve community members/groups in development of the experience/product.

Encourage the purchase of local and organic foods.

Membership of local and regional tourism business networks and support local businesses.

 

 

Visitor Satisfaction

 

Comply with all relevant legislation and monitor visitor satisfaction.

Review by industry peers and professionals on an ongoing basis.

Share insights gathered by visitor satisfaction feedback.

 

 

Responsible Marketing

 

Description and promotion of product is accurate and complete and reflects the nature and feel of the experience.

Potential visitors to be informed as to what the experience offers them in terms of connection with nature, education, conservation, recreation and how the experience benefits the environment and local community.

Minimise use of paper based promotion and utilise internet based methods or promotion and marketing, exclusively if possible.

Develop and enhance networking and promotion of other ecotourism and conservation organisations, venues and networks.

 

Cultural Respect and Awareness

 

Local access to the experience and resources is not impeded by the operation.

Information is provided on local heritage and foster where possible cross border and international cooperation with similar operators and networks.

 

High Level Of Certification Is A Great Achievement!

 

As you can see meeting all of the measures and criteria, which serve as the minimum standard, is no small or easy task for any operator, region or country.

To achieve such standards requires development of a management system that allows for and fosters continued improvement and innovation.

This in turn requires comprehensive monitoring and feedback loops across all categories of the criteria assessment program.

How can the small to medium sized operator or a region new to the concept of sustainable ecotourism hope to meet such standards?

This is a good question that lands right in the middle of that blurry zone where tourism morphs into ecotourism.

It raises lots of questions about what is really sustainable, and from what perspective?

This will be the subject of a Free Resource, designed to help the smaller operator or newcomer fast track to the cutting edge of ecotourism, that will be the subject of another post coming soon!

 

CRann Og Eco Farm Gold Certification Certificate from Eco Tourism Ireland

The Gold Certification from Eco Tourism Ireland we managed for Crann Og Eco Farm, preceded by 2 years at Gold standard 2015 – 2017.

Resources

Global Sustainable Tourism Council Criteria
VERSION 1, 1 NOVEMBER 2013
AND
Suggested Performance Indicators
VERSION 1, 10 DECEMBER 2013
FOR
Destinations

Why Gold Certified Ecotourism is a big deal!

Word Count: 943    Reading Time: 5 minutes

 

Gold Certification is a Big Deal…

 

Because it requires incremental improvement, innovation and maintenance of very high levels of commitment to ecotourism, sustainability, conservation and customer satisfaction.

Internationally ecotourism is overseen by The Global Sustainable Tourism Council and in Ireland the ratified certifying body is Ecotourism Ireland, headed up by Mary Mulvey.

The criteria for certification are exhaustive and cover commitments to responsible, sustainable and educational ecotourism.

Achieving Gold Certified Ecotourism is not easy.

 

Word Count: 943    Reading Time: 5 minutes

 


 

 

Gold Certification is a Big Deal…

 

Because it requires incremental improvement, innovation and maintenance of very high levels of commitment to ecotourism, sustainability, conservation and customer satisfaction.

Internationally ecotourism is overseen by The Global Sustainable Tourism Council and in Ireland the ratified certifying body is Ecotourism Ireland, headed up by Mary Mulvey.

The criteria for certification are exhaustive and cover commitments to responsible, sustainable and educational ecotourism.

Achieving Gold Certified Ecotourism is not easy.

 

Make no mistake, this is not green washing!

 

In total there are 59 Measures (covering many criteria) that are to be addressed by a certified ecotourism operator.

These are assessed by formal application and a comprehensive audit by an ecotourism industry professional.

Finally, the application and audit are reviewed by The Assessment Committee consisting of representatives of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI), National Parks & Wildlife Service, Irish Trails Office and Tourism Ireland.

Ecotourism Ireland defines Gold Certified Operators as:

 

These Ecotourism approved experiences are at the forefront of the industry.

They are provided by businesses dedicated to educating tourists about the natural world and local culture.

They are striving to be environmentally innovative and socially responsible.

Their ecotourism products have a positive impact on the environment, local communities, and their clients.

They will invest both time and money to maintain positive ecotourism practices.

These Ecotourism approved experiences have had an on-site assessment, which verified that they have received 85-100% of the available points.

 

Crann Og Eco Farm Ecotourism Gold Certification from Ecotourism Ireland.

A Venue We Managed To Gold Certification

 

In 2017 we attained Gold Certification by Eco Tourism Ireland for the venue we managed, Crann Og Eco Farm in County Galway, Ireland.

This was the second Gold we attained resulting in four consecutive years certification at this high standard from 2015 to 2019.

We managed the project from no certification to Gold since 2014, and maintained an ethos of continued improvement in management and the ecotourism experience itself.

The venue is currently certified Gold until July 2019 and has now evolved into a small eco sustainable community, focussed on community building and nature based education and therapy.

 

 

Challenges Related To Scale

 

In this particular project it was not an easy task because;

• It is a small, family owned destination with many other priorities.
• The experience partly involves a Special Area of Conservation and a small permaculture focussed farm.
• Numbers of visitors had to be kept low to preserve both the conservation area and permaculture zones.

 

The venue is about getting back to nature, not how many visitors can be squeezed through the venue and how much money can be made as a result!

Therefore turnover is small and resources limited. This means everything must be done in house and to make use of every resource that comes along.

We became masters of the principles of reduce (consumption & waste), re-use (whatever possible) and recycle (everything imaginable). See Waste Heirarchy at Wikipedia.

Continuing to improve performance in terms of eco certification, while maintaining the standard of the experience offered, requires constant commitment.

Furthermore, the preservation of the the sensitive natural features requires vigilant attention and diligence in environmental impact management.

Certainly having greater throughput of visitors and subsequently higher revenues would make a project easier to manage.

Above all, it would be possible to outsource some of the functions performed in house, while returning more time resource to the core team.

Consequently enhancing ROI for our time and increasing additional vacation opportunities, enhancing morale and resilience of the core team.

 

Crann Og Eco Farm Ecotourism Gold Certification from Ecotourism Ireland.

Committing To Sustainability

 

Make no mistake, maintaining a quality ecotourism experience with;

Very high levels of customer interaction, education and recreation;
• At levels of visitor satisfaction returning nearly 100% 5 star reviews;
• With a core team of just 4 people;

Requires an enormous commitment of time, energy, personal involvement and diligence.

 

It is very nearly a 24/7 undertaking, certainly during the ecotourism season.

As we also hosted third party events and provided additional wellness experiences aside from ecotourism throughout the year, it was a full time, 10 months per year commitment.

Finally the other two months were for planning, marketing (constant), maintenance, renovation and improvements.

Somewhere in there we try to take a break too!

 

What are the benefits of Gold Certification?

 

Ecotourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the world and is a major employer in some regions.

It seems this is a trend that will continue well into the future and that proof of sustainable management standards will become increasingly important.

Certification to high standards by world renowned organisations enhances reputation and authenticity.

Furthermore, it demonstrates commitment, diligence and quality of experience to potential tourists.

 

Unwavering Principles And High Performance Standards

 

We at Eco Freelance Support strongly advocate a return to nature of humanity as a whole for well being, education and health.

Similarly for the conservation of the environment on which we all depend for our survival.

Assisting the projects we do to achieve high levels of quality, sustainability, conservation and education strongly promotes to the progression of this ethos.

Therefore, an operator of a venue and experience that strives to achieve such standards, must by definition ascribe to unwavering principles and high performance in areas of;

• Sustainability in environmental management and future development;
• Efficiencies in resource consumption and waste generation;
• Carbon neutrality or better;
• Maintaining revenue generating activities at not more than the maximum carrying capacity of the natural resources, or lower;
• Complete transparency in ownership (e.g: foreign ownership ratios), management, assessment and marketing;
• Visitor education and overall environmental and cultural awareness;
• Preservation of All natural resources worldwide.

In doing so such an operator, venue, experience and community demonstrate to others, local and foreign, more symbiotic ways of living and relating to the natural world.

And that’s what we’re all about!

 

Resources

Our experience;
Two successful applications for Gold Certification
Four Years Operating as Gold Certification Level
95% plus 5 Star visitor reviews, 2015 – 2018

Why We Throttled Social Media?

Word Count: 943    Reading Time: 5 minutes

Why Throttle Social Media?

 

To save time, enhance productivity, limit distraction and attention fragmentation.

Furthermore, to eliminate social media related anxiety, preserve health, be more active and have a life!

We limit ourselves to the use of LinkedIn and Twitter for publishing articles and professional networking.

In addition investing some time in networking with bloggers in specifically relevant fields and we publish on our blog. But that’s it, that’s where we draw the line, for our own purposes.

However that’s not to say that we think all social media is a waste of time, no!

We do understand its value in networking, dissemination of information and of course marketing, depending on the nature of a service or product.

For instance in some of our project work it is an important component of developing a presence and positioning for a venue, service or product.

Word Count: 943    Reading Time: 5 minutes

 


 

Why Throttle Social Media?

 

To save time, enhance productivity, limit distraction and attention fragmentation.

Furthermore, to eliminate social media related anxiety, preserve health, be more active and have a life!

We limit ourselves to the use of LinkedIn and Twitter for publishing articles and professional networking.

In addition investing some time in networking with bloggers in specifically relevant fields and we publish on our blog. But that’s it, that’s where we draw the line, for our own purposes.

However that’s not to say that we think all social media is a waste of time, no!

We do understand its value in networking, dissemination of information and of course marketing, depending on the nature of a service or product.

For instance in some of our project work it is an important component of developing a presence and positioning for a venue, service or product.

Google and Social Media

 

Social media was considered to be an important component in SEO for search rankings.

However Google explained in 2016 it is difficult to accurately determine authorship identity of social media content, so did not (as of 2016) factor social media into search algorithms for ranking.

That said, social media does remain highly relevant though as a vehicle for driving qualified traffic to your sites and businesses, building and positioning a brand, and being an additional point of contact with potential customers.

 

Digital Marketing Value Versus Addictive Behaviour

 

It’s clear that social media platforms are valuable in the modern landscape.

We recommend and conduct integration with social media for our clients where appropriate.

Most importantly we aim to assist our clients to minimise their time and energy drains related to being online and IT in general.

Furthermore we are advocates of returning to nature for health, well being and sustenance. Most definitely including reducing time consuming social media.

Our issue is with overuse of social media as with any other addictive behaviour, it has detrimental effects, chronic and acute.

If you doubt the validity of claims about social media consumption as being potentially addictive, there are websites on the subject.

See It’s Time To Log Off, and 30 Signs Of Social Media Addiction for just a small sample.

In addition the rise of Digital Detox Retreats across the world in recent years for people wanting to “get unplugged”.

In fact we have supported digital detox type retreats in Ireland and Portugal, so far!

Finally there are numerous studies on the subject of social media use and depression and other negative effects.

Anya Zhukova provides a good introductory discussion of Negative Effects of Social Media over at Makeuseof.com.

See Resources at the bottom of this post for some related studies.

 

FOMO (Fear of Missing Out)

 

A typical argument against not being an individual consumer of Facebook and other hugely popular social platforms is the Fear Of Missing Out on something.

We travel a lot, we meet literally hundreds and hundreds of people in the course of a year.

We experience new real world stuff most of the time.

We certainly have plenty of adventures and probably travel more than most people.

We’re very open minded and well informed.

Furthermore, we lead rewarding lives and enjoy ourselves aplenty.

All achieved without a Facebook profile or any of the other popular platforms, save for those mentioned above we use for professional networking.

 

What We Gained Leaving Social Media

 

As the title of this article suggests, we did use popular social media when it first came out.

However we found quickly that we didn’t like it and the amount of time needed interfered with our lives.

Recognising the oscillation of background anxiety that came with its use and its design elements that were aimed at creating a kind of dependency akin to addiction.

We felt the effects of being mentally overstimulated and distracted away from the world outdoors, nature, fresh air, natural environments.

Our conclusion was that it is a form of entertainment that we don’t like.

We tired quickly of watching rooms of friends communicate with each other through their devices, and of conversations being interrupted by people’s need of a fix of their social media.

Not to mention the modern posture, head down, eyes transfixed as they finger scrolled through their online life.

What did we notice when we deleted our social media profiles, way back then?

 

We saved time, yep lots of time!

 

In addition we found that our background anxiety levels dropped away.

That is, after the initial period of discontinued use, which came with some passing feelings of anxiety and fear of missing out.

This left space and time to reconnect with oneself and develop that inner relationship more, without the need of any external validation of our activities, choices, preferences, opinions and lifestyle.

 

Sedentary Lifestyles Are Literally Killing Us

 

There is a fast growing body of research demonstrating how social media use may be a major contributing factor in the rise of anxiety and depression in children, adolescents and adults alike.

There are also physical impacts associated with the sedentary lifestyle and extensive use of screen interfaced technologies.

The human body did not evolve to sit for prolonged periods, it evolved to move, and move a lot!

Technology use sees many of us sitting for periods of time that are literally killing us!

It is estimated that 90% of premature deaths worldwide are attributable to this modern habit of sitting too much.

An overly sedentary lifestyle is shown to be connected to many chronic health conditions.

Check out Murat Dalkilinç’s TEDEx lesson “Why sitting is bad for you“ for a cool presentation on this matter.

 

Sitting Makes It Harder To Think

 

A sedentary lifestyle diminishes concentration also, by reducing blood and thus oxygen circulation to the brain.

Concentration is actually aided by movement which enhances circulation.

Too much sitting is a major factor in modern body posture related health issues such as spinal problems, circulation both blood and lymph, nervous system function and fat metabolising.

There are plenty of sources out there discussing the implications of sitting too much, here’s just a couple worth a look;

Why Sitting Down Destroys You | Roger Frampton – YouTube

Why Sitting Too Much Is Seriously Bad for Your Health – Authority Nutrition.com

We also notice a bunch of effects when we have to engage in prolonged use of screen interface technologies, such as;

• tiredness
• sore eyes
• anti social tendency and moodiness
• over stimulation
• anxiety
• compelled to repeat/prolong the experience of tech engagement
• reluctance to engage in outdoor activities
• less restful sleep
• diminished positive attitude

 

Other Purposes Behind Social Media

 

We feel it is also important to point out that social media is not a fundamental technology in and of itself, it uses technology to deliver a product that is essentially entertainment.

It is also a means of data mining private information of individuals and populations for selling on to marketers and promoters.

Social media companies employ attention engineers whose function is to make social media as addictive and compulsive as possible to maximise user engagement and optimise data acquisition and product/service promotion.

As with all things in life, social media use is ok in moderation, but give it some thought, do you really know why you spend the time and energy you do using it?

Give it some real deep thought, go inside your choices and behaviours, do you really know what motivates them?

Can this be extended to other aspects of our lives? You bet ya!

What could you be doing with your time if you didn’t spend as much time online?

Check out the work by Dr Cal Newport on this subject and others. Watch Cal’s TedTalk, Why You Should Quit Social Media.

Cal is a professor at Georgetown University.

In his latest book Deep Work, Cal Newport flips the narrative on impact in a connected age.

 

Resources

Social media use and perceptions of physical health
Bridget Dibb, 2019

Investigating the Effects of Social Media Usage on Sleep Quality
Dinesh Kaimal, Ravi Teja Sajja, Farzan Sasangohar, 2017

Health Effects of Media on Children and Adolescents
Victor C. Strasburger, Amy B. Jordan, Ed Donnerstein, 2010